Coconut oil, aside from being used in cooking as an ingredient and for frying, is used in soaps, cosmetics, hair oil, and massage oil. Fresh husks contain more tannin than old husks. Apical buds of adult plants are edible, and are known as "palm cabbage" or heart of palm. Coconuts could not reach inland locations without human intervention (to carry seednuts, plant seedlings, etc.) [50] However, there is some evidence that it may be polygamomonoecious, and may occasionally have bisexual flowers. Harries' adoption of the Polynesian terms niu kafa and niu vai has now passed into general scientific discourse, and his hypothesis is generally accepted. [47] It is consumed throughout the humid tropics, and has been introduced into the retail market as a processed sports drink. Hawaiians hollowed the trunk to form drums, containers, or small canoes. Over the course of evolutionary time-scales the shifting atolls would have shortened the paths of colonization, meaning that any one coconut would not have to travel very far to find new land. [4][5][6] Coco and coconut apparently came from 1521 encounters by Portuguese and Spanish explorers with Pacific islanders, with the coconut shell reminding them of a ghost or witch in Portuguese folklore called coco (also côca). [46], Botanically, the coconut fruit is a drupe, not a true nut. The earliest Cocos-like fossil to be found was "Cocos" zeylanica, a fossil species described from small fruits, around 3.5 cm (1.4 in) × 1.3 to 2.5 cm (0.51 to 0.98 in) in size, recovered from the Miocene (~23 to 5.3 million years ago) of New Zealand in 1926. Tannin produces negative effects on sapling growth. Due to growing sedentary lifestyles and heavy-handed landscaping, a decline in these traditional farming and soil-fixing techniques has occurred. [100] Coconut oil extracted from coconut milk or copra is also used for frying, cooking, and making margarine, among other uses.[96][101]. However, they can be found in humid areas with low annual precipitation such as in Karachi, Pakistan, which receives only about 250 mm (9.8 in) of rainfall per year, but is consistently warm and humid. The researchers concluded that it was brought by early Austronesian sailors to the Americas from at least 2,250 BP, and may be proof of pre-Columbian contact between Austronesian cultures and South American cultures, albeit in the opposite direction than what early hypotheses like Heyerdahl's had proposed. The cups were frequently engraved and decorated with precious metals.[115]. [9] Thenga, its Malayalam name, was used in the detailed description of coconut found in Itinerario by Ludovico di Varthema published in 1510 and also in the later Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. [1] The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut")[2] can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut. [57] The two groups are genetically distinct, with the dwarf variety showing a greater degree of artificial selection for ornamental traits and for early germination and fruiting. [91], A special cultivar of coconut known as macapuno has a jelly-like coconut meat. The leaves also provide material for baskets that can draw well water and for roofing thatch; they can be woven into mats, cooking skewers, and kindling arrows as well. [40], Cocos nucifera is a large palm, growing up to 30 m (100 ft) tall, with pinnate leaves 4–6 m (13–20 ft) long, and pinnae 60–90 cm (2–3 ft) long; old leaves break away cleanly, leaving the trunk smooth. Other aspects such as seed size, shape and weight, and copra thickness are also important factors in the selection of new cultivars. Also ironic is while coconut products, primarily in oil form, generate more than $1 billion in export receipts annually, about 90 percent of the approximately 3.4 million coconut farmers still form part of the country’s “poorest of the poor.”. 2,000-4,000 adventitious roots may grow, each about 1 cm (0.39 in) large. [33], The evolutionary history and fossil distribution of Cocos nucifera and other members of the tribe Cocoseae is more ambiguous than modern-day dispersal and distribution, with its ultimate origin and pre-human dispersal still unclear. In Kerala, coconut trunks are used for house construction. [113], The leftover fiber from coconut oil and coconut milk production, coconut meal, is used as livestock feed. Robredo helps out in ‘Ulysses’ rescue, relief operations, Malacañang suspends work, classes on Nov. 13, Magnitude 5.3 quake rocks Surigao del Norte, Over 1,000 NDRRMC personnel on standby for search and rescue, Storm signals lowered over Metro Manila, parts of Luzon as ‘Ulysses’ heads toward West PH Sea, Week 25 of the coronavirus quarantine; high crime, mastermind in our midst, Reverse lessons on democracy from America, Of preelection surveys and postelection projections. Though Kerala has the largest number of coconut trees, in terms of production per hectare, Tamil Nadu leads all other states. (1950) Kon-Tiki: Across the Pacific by Raft. In Asia, coconut shells are also used as bowls and in the manufacture of various handicrafts, including buttons carved from dried shell. Dwarf varieties are also available. The dried calyx is used as fuel in wood-fired stoves. The coconut populations in the island show genetic admixture between the two subpopulations indicating that Pacific coconuts were brought by the Austronesian settlers that later interbred with the local Indo-Atlantic coconuts. C. binoriensis has been claimed by their authors to be the earliest known fossil of Cocos nucifera. Shake the tree by facing it and pressing A. [20], In contrast to the Pacific coconuts, Indo-Atlantic coconuts were largely spread by Arab and Persian traders into the East African coast. A coco chocolatero was a cup used to serve small quantities of beverages (such as chocolate drinks) between the 17th and 19th centuries in countries such as Mexico, Guatemala, and Venezuela. Get the latest news from your inbox for free. Macapuno is a coconut variety with a jelly-like coconut meat. ; Diekmann, M. If that’s too tall, consider getting yourself a dwarf variety of the coconut palm tree, which only grows to … Many of the smallest coral islands in the Florida Keys are known to have abundant coconut palms sprouting from coconuts that have drifted or been deposited by ocean currents. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). Coconuts' versatility is sometimes noted in its naming. Palm wine is distilled to produce arrack. Over the long-term, there is an urgent need to increase the lands planted to coconut, which the PCA will undertake in the next few years through programs like the PCCP. ", "Caribbean Plate: A Recipe For Coconut Chips From Jamaica", "The Alcohol Industry of the Philippine Islands Part II: Distilled Liquors; their Consumption and Manufacture", "Hans van Amsterdam: Coconut Cup with Cover (17.190.622ab) – Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History – The Metropolitan Museum of Art", "Remembering PT-109: A carved walking stick evokes ship commander John F. Kennedy's dramatic rescue at sea", "MO63.4852 Coconut shell paperweight with PT109 rescue message", "The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (, "Data sheet about delta-decalactone and its properties", "Aussie scientists find coconut-carrying octopus", "A tool-wielding octopus?


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